I uploaded the cb project here:https://transfer.sh/EZGuz/dce2.cbp
When you go to "Build options", you have on the left the hierarchy :
In the "'Make' commands" tab I only filled the toplevel "Build project/target" command. If I fill the other commands "COmpile single file" etc..., the "argv" crash disappears.
Now I also noticed a new bug, when I open this same "Build options" window and goes from "Debug" to "dce" I have another bug (backtrace enclosed).
To reproduce the missing redraw on i3 (my guess is that it should be doable with other WM like awesome, gnome if you have a sudden resize etc...), open codeblocks and a terminal (or anything else) side by side, focus the terminal and press ALT+E (or WIN+E) to go to a tab layout, you should notice that codeblocks doesn't draw everything.
If I do the same while focusing cb, then everything is drawn properly. I don't know how WM/applciations work but either i3 fails to send an update to codeblocks because it's not focused or maybe codeblocks should catch focus events and redraw itself.